Sunday, January 22, 2012

How to Reference an Article?

History books and Journals (Academic Magazines) do a lot of research from the sources they use such as other books, journals themselves, old newspapers, genealogical records, photographs and minute books. These sources are always and should be referenced. Lets start with the most common used source in an article - the book. You will see all these sources used near the end of the history book.

Book

In any reference bar newspaper or genealogical record it always starts with the author's surname so a book I will take for example will be Land, Revoultion and Nationalist Politics by Dr. Fergus Campell.

A book is referenced this way; author's surname, author's name, title of book in italics, then the name of the publisher and year in brackets)

So it would go like this Fergus, Campell, Land, Revoultion and Nationalist Politics in the West 1891-1921, (Oxford University Press, 2005).

 'Dr.' is left out of the reference. If you are referencing this on a page from a book in a thesis you can do it the same way as above but after '(Oxford University Press, 2005)' put the page no. in e.g ' (Oxford University Press, 2005) p6'.

You will find the publishers on the spine of the history book or after the main title page.

Journal

A journal is slightly different. So for example I will take the Athenry News and Views as an example. Journals have issue and volume numbers that books don't have. So to reference a journal it is authour surname, name, 'Title of Article not in italics', Title of magazine/journal in italics, volume number, issue number, which results in below:

Killeen, Ronan, 'Athenry Western Sack & Bag Factory', Athenry News & Views, Vol.2, No.4, (April/May, 2011) p18.

No.4 = the issue number of the journal

Thesis/Disserations    

(A) An undergratuate dissertation = Killeen, Ronan, Capital Punishment in Galway 1885-1923, (Unpublished B. A. Dissertation, Department of Humanities, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, 2011)

(B) A MA (Masters) Thesis = The only thing that changes here is the degree so the the undergratuate thesis becomes in brackets (Unpublished M. A. Thesis, School of Humanities, Galway-Mayo Insititute of Technology, 2011

(C) PhD Thesis = Once again the only change is in brackets (Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Humanities, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, 2011)

Websites
This is simple all you have to do is copy and paste to the url e.g http://www.blogger.com/post-edit.g?blogID=2776758945557745334&postID=421950787267289651 to your footnote.

In you blog you could be reference the national archives website in you bibliography just type in http://www.nationalarchives.ie/ but it you want to reference something specfic on the national archives like those in the railway hotel you have to copy and paste it to your footnote or whatever type of reference you are using and type in http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Galway/Athenry/Cullairbawn/1385360/.

Manuscript

This is our very last piece to look at in this article/lesson of some sort.

National Library of Ireland, Dublin, MS. 8499, Photostat Copy of a Draft a War Bulletin by P. H. Pearse, Commandant General of the Army of the Irish Republic, 27 April 1916.

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